The dentist disaster, patents-when they should and when they shouldn't be awarded, Monsanto.

When I moved to the USA from India at the age of 21 for my Grad School in 1992, I was surprised to find that most Americans and Europeans I met, who were of my age, had fillings in their teeth. No one in India I knew had had fillings at that age. I had never seen a dentist in India.
Investigating dentistry in the following years in the many cases I saw of my friends- and putting together my own experience with dentists, gave me more insight into this really scammy profession.

Dental caries are a major problem for children, and are highly correlated to intake of sugar. In the Americas (North and South) and Western Europe, the dentists have convinced everyone that kids' caries need to be taken care of right then; otherwise runaway infections will happen and their children will be in serious trouble. The tooth around caries are taken out physically by abrasive procedures; the dental drill is their most important tool. Part of the child's tooth is permanently removed and a filling placed over it. The dentists start  doing this procedure to children around 7 or 8 years old. The teeth of a child is growing in proportion to her body as they get to teenage-the filing obviously falls off every two years or so, and new ones are put in. This procedure continues well into teens, when the child finally has reached the mature, no growth stage.

The simple solution in India is to deal with the infections by clove oil and antibiotics and give painkillers to the child. No-one ever takes their child to a dentist. By the time the child is a teenager-the caries go away and the cavities are filled up automatically, owing to the normal growth of the tooth (Clove oil seems to interfere in the formation of caries-the principle of how it works is not clear, but I use cloves and clove oil regularly to get rid of tooth pain)

After that, dental checkups are recommended by these low-ethic medics all your life. Wisdom teeth are removed, teeth below the normal teeth (visible in X-rays) are removed, all in the name of preventative maintenance. I am certain that most of these procedures are completely unnecessary-plenty of old people I know in India have never got any of these procedures and have a pretty good set of teeth even in their 70s.

I had an episode of bruxism a few years back. A special separator was ordered for me, at a cost of about USD1000. Before this a silicone separator  was used-which cost about USD10. The dentists convinced the governments in all these countries that silicone separators were bad; one needed to have a custom separator designed for "good health of citizens' teeth). Silicone separators are not even allowed in Chile, USA and Canada. The monopoly of dentists fools all the governments of these countries to ban stuff which is really more comfortable and cheaper than the harder separators which are custom designed. The end result is-that for bruxism, where some simple muscle relaxant and a USD10 silicone separator will take care of the problem, the patient is made to pay north of USD1000. All of it goes into these dentists pockets.

I came across many people who had root canal surgeries done. This kind of stuff is basically amputation of your tooth (the root, which is sealed off to cut off blood to the tooth. The redundacy in the arterial/vein system still keeps the tooth alive for a few years, after which it turns black, and has to be removed by you guessed it, a dentist)...and dentists do it is a "normal procedure" to millions of people in the world. Even in India they are doing it more and more now. The parasite of dentistry is slowly gaining power in this world!

Also exaggerated is the effects of losing some teeth. Human adults have 28 to 32 teeth; and it is obvious that there is redundancy there. Accidents may result in teeth being lost-and the loss of one tooth does not affect the stability of the others (the joint is at the jaw via the gum, the lateral forces are minor in holding the tooth). Don't let the dentist scare you into thinking that if you lose a tooth-the ones around become loose and he has to re-inforce them, or put something in the space created by the lost tooth to hold things in order-he is not considering the redudancy in the large amount of teeth which nature created for us. Humans who do sports (boxing, football, etc) will lose some teeth during their play-but will get on just fine in life. Leaving the space where a tooth is lost completely open will do no harm to you long term, contrary to what your dentist might tell you-you do not need to fill it up. If some food particles get into that cavity, you can remove them by a toothbrush everyday-but you don't need to cap these spaces or cavities (contrary to recommendations of dentistry). Old people who lose some teeth carry out the masticating functions with the others just fine.

Teeth cleaning is for removing bad breath, but has no health benefits

Dentists worldwide, but especially in the Americas (North and South, where medicine is largely private) invent all kinds of newer and altogether fraudulent ways to make more money.
Teeth cleaning by a dentist can't be good for you. He tells us that it will remove bacteria, etc. in our mouth. What happens in 1 day, after I have eaten my lunch and dinner? Bacteria and microbes don't need much time to multiply and infest my mouth again? What about 7 days, when I have had 7 lunches and Dinners? I am back to square one in the bacteria/microbes in my mouth, my mouth's bacteria are the same as when I had not done the cleaning, plus I am down about US$50 or US$70 (typical cleaning costs in US, Canada and Chile), with no permanent advantage. In the cleaning, the dentists has taken away another layer or my teeth, a real loss.

The reasons to do teeth cleaning using a toothpaste and brush in the morning are: 1) for aesthetic purposes (teeth too yellow, black etc.) and 2) for the pleasant smell of a clean mouth/jaw. 

Teeth cleaning is not needed for good hygiene or good health-animals like elephants and crocodiles have the same life span as humans and do not need teeth cleaning and live just fine. Thousands of animals have the same teeth structure as humans (dogs, cats included) and get on just fine without any cleaning, casting great doubt on the theories of dentists and toothpaste makers that you need to clean your teeth for "good health".  Anyone who has owned a dog knows that dog breath is not a pleasant thing-but the smell does not affect the dog's teeth in any way. The mouth is made to ingest food; and remnants of food in it cannot possibly be harmful.  Some dentist descendent or cousin in the future might recommend the cleaning of the oesophagus, the stomach or the whole digestive system for good heath. The whole system, including the mouth and the teeth, are designed to take in food; and if you leave some food particles inside your mouth (or your stomach) they won't do you any harm healthwise (won't cause infections, etc.).

Teeth cleaning for bacteria doesn't have an effect for more than a few hours until you take your next meal, because bacteria will grow back (they have short life cycles).

Which brings us to Colgate and Proctor and Gamble, the makers of toothpastes. These guys advertise about removal or bacteria, cavities, etc. by using their toothpaste for 5 minutes every morning. Or flourite use strengthening my teeth, or calcium enhanced toothpaste for making it last longer. Whatever.
The problem is, the next time I eat anything, all these wonderful effects of the toothpaste are gone. It is very hard for me to believe that a 5 minute treatment of my teeth with all these substances has any long term benefit. This is under the assumption that most toothpaste will be rinsed out with water after you are done; if  you were to hold the toothpaste in your mouth for 2 hours every day you will probably see some of the beneficial effects of these additives. Holding a toothpaste for 2 hours in your mouth has not been recommended by Colgate or P and G, to the best of my knowledge...

I do like using toothpaste, but that's for the instantaneous cleaning effects it offers, like a good shower with soap. But to make it sound like it's doing good for my teeth long term when it is enhanced by all these additives is blatant lying. The cleaning itself is good for me long term (every day I get rid of the food particles and bacteria, etc in my mouth) but a 5 minute treatment with Flourite, Calcium etc, is not going to help my teeth long term, is what I am saying.

The biggest proof that teeth cleaning like a dentist does or brushing your teeth is not a necessary thing to keep your teeth "healthy" comes from animals. So many mammals-elephants, tigers, cats, dogs, monkeys, etc etc. will last decades without any teeth cleaning from a dentist or without brushing their teeth-but will live just fine. Their teeth will keep providing the basic function of mastication without these procedures. Many of these animals are carnivorous-and need a very nice set of functioning teeth for several decades to stay alive. If animals like these, whose jaws are very similar to humans, don't need any teeth cleaning or  brushing to live for decades-why would a human do?

This test of comparing medical procedures to how the procedures will work with closely related animals is one of the big ones to figure out if the medical procedure a doctor or dentist is doing on you is good science or bad science. If the science is real-the same procedures in larger mammals should be recommended and we should see the same benefits in them. Another test is global-the procedures should not very much from country to country. If they do-then it is most likely bad science. Physics and Maths is same everywhere in the world, not so for teeth cleaning or antibiotic use or nutrition. 

Keep your children away from Dentists!

Children and young adults should never have to go to a dentist. As I have shown you above-teeth cleaning is useful only until the next meal, so no need to go for "regular" teeth cleaning. Infections can be taken out by antibiotics. Pain relief sometimes may be necessary-can be local pain relief of standard oral pain killers like ibuprofen and paracetamol. Anyone who is having root canals and caps and crowns done if they are a child or a young adult has been duped by these professionals and their half-baked knowledge. In the USA and Chile, children at the age of 8 years are going to dentists and have dental procedures done for their caries-fraud dentistry at its best. In India, when children have caries (cavities) they are given a dose of clove oil and antibiotics and pain killers, but no one goes to a dentist. No physical damage to the teeth is done. The teeth of a child grow from the age of 7 to 16 pretty much like the rest of their body-the cavities and carries get filled up naturally as the child grows! By physically damaging the tooth, stupid dentists retard this natural development of a child's tooth, and sure enough, they have a patient for life in them. It is like amputating someone's leg when they have an problem, especially when they are a growing child. You can imagine how a partially amputated leg grows. That's exactly what these dentists are doing to children's teeth. When I moved from India to the US at the age of 21, I was surprised to find that most of my fellow university students had caps in their teeth-no one in India I know went to a dentist until they were 50 or 60 years of age. The wily American dentists had already started making clients for life. In the name of healthy teeth, scaring parents with theories of run-away infections in their children's mouths, etc. etc. the dentists had started interfering the natural growth process of a child's tooth starting from the age of 8!

The dentists sell the idea that by putting a cap on the teeth of kids, they will be prevented from caries.   The physical seal of a cap on a tooth does nothing to prevent caries from forming, as I can tell from watching kids get them. In the meantime, the dentist keeps a nice chunk of money capping all teeth.

The whole idea of putting metal or artificial substance fillings on cavities and caries is bizarre. You grind a part of the tooth, and then put a foreign substance on it, and you think you will make it better than the original tooth? Bizarre and stupid.

 The lie of preventive medicine, especially in dentistry

"Preventive" wisdom tooth removal should be completely avoided. No one in India has their wisdom teeth taken out. They live just fine. I know plenty of people in their seventies who have them. When it does bother-take some pain killers. Give it a few days, about a week in some cases-and the pain subsides. Wisdom teeth apparently grow in spurts and irregularly over our lifetime, the best procedure is to get used to this and let them come out naturally. Keeping the wisdom tooth area clean is a good idea-instead of an abrasive toothbrush, try chewing on chewing gum-it will pull out all the food particles in the area in a non-abrasive way.

Root canal procedures should be completely eliminated. Root canal is a surgery-it should not be taken lightly. A cut finger which is infected is not removed or tied up to die-but it is shocking to find how many people get a root canal surgery because of some stupid dentist recommending it as necessary. Obviously there is money to be made for the dentist-and that's why the are recommending it. A run away infection in your mouth is as likely as a run away infection in your finger-i.e. both are very unlikely, and 99% of root canals are unnecessary. A big dosage of antibiotics will take care of large infections in the the mouth.

There are sometimes other teeth under the gums, etc. which have not come out-your dentist will try to tell you that they will cause problems later on and "preventive" surgery can be done to remove them. You can see these teeth in Xrays. Ignore what the dentist says. In many cases I know of, these teeth stay embedded for the full life if a human being-they never come out. The dentist wants to make money, he or she obviously wants you to take them out. I have known plenty of people who live their life just fine with all these embedded teeth in their mouth.

As you get older, some of your teeth will become loose, and many people get them pulled out by dentists. There is the risk that a part of the tooth is left behind when the man acts on your tooth. That is extremely painful; and to remove the other half requires a minor surgery. It is for this reason that I believe teeth pulling should be avoided-a forcible pulling out of the tooth does not have 100% success; and when parts of the tooth are left behind, you make matters much worse (and more money for the dentist). If teeth start to become loose, try moving them with your hands, and in a few months you can pull them out yourself without any undue force. All of us have done this when we were children; we need to do this when we are adults as well.

Absolutely avoid dental checkups which they recommend you do regularly. They are useless. Just like a car mechanic, who is bound to do "preventative" maintenance on a car every time you take your car to him, dentists are designed to see problems. But a car mechanics knowledge of cars is 100 times better than a dentist's knowledge of your teeth and mouth, and that's where the problem is.

In summary-you are better off avoiding the scammers called dentists almost entirely throughout your lifetime. I say almost because there are a few cases where u do need them-if a tooth breaks for example, they will cap and put cement on it to make it look good and continue functioning. Also, for aesthetic purposes, like straightening of teeth, they are useful. But they are not serious medics or science guys. They are pretty much like car mechanics or cobblers-they will fix stuff-but please do not have high regard for this profession of dentists (and in general of medicine) just because they spend 7 years in some phony institution to get their useless degrees.

Dentistry is like blood-letting, a terrible solution to problems

I believe that dentistry will go down in history as equivalent to blood-letting. Blood-letting was a standard procedure of medicine until 1840, and medical school was learning how and from where to draw blood to cure illnesses. It was so wrong, looking back; but at that time, for hundreds of years, was "medicine". It is the same with dentistry. Being an Engineer, I am amazed that a dentist is allowed to use  a drill to take care of something as simple as infections, which he himself admits are caused by bacteria! It is a violation of physics and engineering-these guys are handling equipment which should never ever be used on patients.

The only place where they have some real need is when a tooth chips off or break under accidents, etc. Then someone is needed, to put braces, straighten the tooth, or take out some. This procedure can be learnt by a 2 month training course by any medical technician-or a general surgeon who deals with trauma and injuries. You can get rid of all dentists and dentist visits from your life. Save yourself money, and more importantly, don't get harmed by these pseudo-medics who are running the biggest fraud under the umbrella of healthcare and medicine.
The dentist is a medicine man who I trust the least among all medical professions. The damage they cause to teeth/gums is irreversible, and I think a almost all the procedures which dentists do today, in all parts of the world, are avoidable and useless-and in many cases, actually harmful to you. Any dental work is essentially a mini-surgery. Most of their knowledge is based on false, let's-fix-it-mechanically type of reasoning. They are like car mechanics-anytime you take your car to a mechanic he tells you 3 other problems which you should get fixed as preventative maintenance. I believe a car mechanic's knowledge of cars is more sound than a Dentist's knowledge of teeth.

All dentists know that caries are caused by sugar. If the infections are not runaway infections (and they aren't), why are we going in there mechanically to take out parts of our teeth? Trying to take care of the caries without physically destroying the tooth should be the first means. Imagine that when you have an infected finger, the doctor tried to take out your nail! That is exactly what dentists are doing-they are taking out parts of the tooth to take away the caries. This is really silly logic-you don't grind away at a part which has a problem and cap it-the original source of the problem, sugar, is not addressed. Young people (less than 50 years of age) getting root canals is an unheard of thing in India, but a very common thing in the Americas and Europe. The dentists have convinced everyone that taking out the tooth is the only solution to a deep rooted infection-a false conclusion. Good science, good medicine, is universal-the practice shouldn't change by country or place-if it is not, it is not good science. Noone called Chinese or Korean physicists or electrical engineers doing something substantially different than European and American physicsts or electrical engineers.

In fact, the very existence of terms like "good doctor" or "good dentist" give you an inkling that something is wrong. There are no such terms as "good physicist" or "good electrical engineer". The hard science stuff is not subjective, the knowledge is universal over the world-and a physicist  in Japan is as good as one in Chile. Whenever you are putting dependence on the dentist and doctor as a person, you are showing clearly that the science is not well-established, that the procedures for the cures are agent-dependent.

My suggestion to you is to avoid a visit to a dentist. Most problems can be taken care of with analgesics and antibiotics together with cloves/clove oil. Also, ignore everything they say they want to do which is preventative maintenance, you can get them fixed when the problems surface-if they surface at all. With their X-Rays and half-baked knowledge, these see problems which don't really exist-and by doing mechanical damage to your jaw, they actually create many other problems for you. The profession of a dentist is something in between bad science and outright fraud. In India, almost noone goes to them; in USA and Chile, children at the age of 8 are getting their teeth capped. These people basically create a disabity which they can care of for life, and make good money for themselves.

Society would be better of if 95% of universities which offer courses in dentistry were shut down and production of these useless people would stop.

Dental Caries and Cavities -- Noone in India goes to a dentist-and when children have caries and cavities, they are just left to fill up themselves as they grow up. Tooth growth is proportional to the growth of the overall body. Capping of children's teeth is the worst thing that you can do to them. It will prevent the natural growth of these teeth. The wily dentists will have a patient for life.

Clove oil and tonic water may have antibiotic properties as well. I recommend you take them together with antibiotics in pill form (which may not be available easily). Many times the clove oil itself will be enough to clear an infection. You need to ingest it, not just keep it in your mouth and gargle with it.

Stress doesn't cause bruxism or anything

Some years ago I went to a dentist (when I still had some faith in them) because I was grinding my teeth while sleeping (bruxism). The doctor quizzed me about all the new stuff happening in my life (new city, new job, etc. etc.) and concluded that the bruxism was caused by stress. The remedy was right-an apparatus between my teeth while sleeping, muscle relaxants, and pain relievers, but the cause was not. Saying something like bruxism is caused by stress is saying nothing at all. The doctor's experience with this illness made her prescribe the right remedy-but she is not a very logical person and is not able to reason out things from first principles of science and mathematics, and the causal attribution is not correct.

Stress is imaginary, undefinable, and ascribing it to the cause of an illness is just a play of words in the end. One of the most absurd examples is when stress is the cause and the effect of a disorder or illness...e.g. loss of sleep. You often hear stress being caused by you not sleeping well at night these days, and the reverse-that you are not sleeping well these days because of stress in your life. You seem to go into a negative feedback loop of more stress-worse sleep-causing still more stress; not a good situation to be in....

I am of the firm opinion that all illnesses have somatic causes. No illness can be caused by psychological causes, etc. Stress is a psychological symptom, and cannot be  a cause of an illness.

Bruxism or ulcers in the stomach have unknown causes. Stress doesn't cause these conditions. If you believe like I do that human body, or any animal body, is an extremely robust system, then real causes are external or internal, and have certain characteristics.  External factors, if causing an illness, have to manifest themselves in a physical (e.g. radiation causing you damage to skin or eye), chemical (e.g. ingesting a poison, getting in contact with sulfuric acid) or biological form (e.g. bacteria, viruses). Internal factors in the organism can be a deterioration in the organism spontaneously or with age, genetics, etc. All psychology related stuff can be safely thrown out of the window for real causes of illnesses. The psychologist and psychiatrist can still prescribe the right remedy-but they have little clue about true causality.

More on dentists HERE and HERE  and HERE (some stuff is repeated here), the whole profession of dentistry is a sham. The world would be a better place if dentistry schools were completely shut down. If you do have aches and pains in your mouth, as much as it is a part of your body, a General practitioner is your best bet. There is absolutely no need to have dentists as a separate profession.

Private medicine is not good for humanity, patents neither

There is a popular argument for private healthcare which is used to fool Governments and the public. This argument is proposed by everyone involved in private healthcare-the drug companies like Pfizer and Merck, the health insurers, the doctors and their mafia associations like AMA and CMA, private hospitals, etc.
It is particularly used by drug companies and other "innovative, cutting edge" science companies.

They say that giving good money to them is important to develop good products, to develop new drugs, etc. That Intellectual Property (IP) needs to be protected well, and compensated, so companies like Pfizer can keep innovating to produce better and better drugs. Essentially, give me money to do great research. This is balderdash.

Good science doesn't need money,  or at least a profit motive. If the money is needed, it is better if it comes from the Government-not thru fooling private citizenry with slick ads to prevent and alleviate osteoporosis and arthritis. Some Government (US) organizations which produce amazing stuff are the US Military, NASA, the various National labs in the USA affiliated to NSF, etc. In Russia it is the Space Agency, same in India. Loads of great products and technologies are born in Universities. The profit motive is non-existent; most of the royalty goes to the Univ and not the Professor.

A reward for patents should be esteem from your fellow scientists, and maybe some money at the individual level, let's say a Million Dollars, but not more. Pfizers etc. are paid hundreds of millions of dollars for patent fees and patent violations. That's horrible. The  patenting of medicine is bad, bad for humanity. It is great if the Government gives some money to the inventor or the discoverer-e.g. if someone solves Cancer or solves AIDS, but the reward should not go to the company. The patent should come in a common pool, to be used by all companies, to ALLEVIATE HUMAN MISERY as fast as possible. What is ultimately good for society will eventually be good for these drug companies, but they are too foolish to realize this. Swayed by the nominal value of money-they make drug making, production and distribution a real mafia racket. It is bad for society, and in the end is really bad for them, because they are happy with the nominal value of money, where as the real value is not that high. Pain relief activities like Police, Military, Fire Fighting, and Medicine should be non-profit; in the hands of the Government. See details of why this is the case in a previous post here.

Anyway, I just wanted to question the commonly accepted argument that huge amounts of money is needed for drug discovery, which justifies these 17 year old patents, royalties, etc. It is not. Look at the Universities, Government agencies, etc. around you-they do cutting edge science, have great patents, and are the ones who should be doing all the cutting edge work when it comes to alleviating human pain. However, when it is for pleasurable activities-Tesla's electric cars, Google Search Engine, Intel chips or Samsung phones, that is best done by private capital.

It would be a great thing if medical patents were altogether eliminated as a category from the patent offices of the world. Good drugs will come to market faster; some individual companies will be hurt once in a while, but that's their problem. A good government should prevent the formation of monopolies; and the patent system is a punch in the face of that---the government actually aids the monopolists in their wily design to control and dominate the market.

For pleasurable stuff like Iphones and Car batteries; I think having a Patent Office is fine; but patents should be awarded rarely, only for real cutting edge discoveries. Right now they are used by companies to suppress innovation at other companies, to extort money-and the US or European or Japanese patent office, in their zeal to collect pennies in patent fees, gives up the benefit to mankind (the consumer) which would entail if they didn't give so many patents. Software patents are the newest beast in town; even the venerable Google has a low opinion of them (and they are an insider!). But the patent offices keep giving patents to Oracle, Apple, etc.; stifling competition, and making the monopolists' scheme even more perfect. Instead of preventing patenting, the government aids in patenting and establishing proprietary technology. If the monopolists can't guard their secrets, that is their problem; the government should not help them guard it.

A case in point nowadays is Apple vs. Samsung. Apple has patented the silliest of things-from they way to tap the device to the way to hold and swipe it with your finger. The USPO and EPO have missed the point that they should not put patents out for originality but for something which is difficult to do, a true technological or scientific achievement. An example: every cook does something original with a dish or the vegetables she uses. Cook X might patent a new way to cut carrots-with the head on the board. It is really new, noone has patented it, you see! If you cut a carrot with the head on the board, you might violate the patent of carrot-cutting by Cook X that what patenting is???  If patenting was cheap, every cook should file patents then.. the good thing is they never get stinky rich like Apple to do so. The point I want to hammer home by this example is that patents should be awarded rarely, only for clearly difficult to do stuff-not for originality. Another example-a guitarist files the first patent for playing the guitar behind his head-and now we have a major problem, because so many cool rock stars have to pay this guitarist money to do the cook strumming with the guitar behind the head trick. You can't blame the guitarist or Apple to try to extort money from everyone-the fault lies with the Patent Offices for awarding the patent at the first place!

A good way to judge if there are too many patents awarded is the existence of patent trolls. If companies exist just to collect royalty on patents, and have no operations-then something is really wrong. Number of patent awards should go down considerably; and all such companies should go out of business. The employees could do something more useful-making Subway sandwiches sounds like a very nice profession for these people.

Patents are nothing but an award of exclusivity. You can even argue that if something is difficult to do and replicate, why bother patenting it? And since we shouldn't award patents for easy stuff anyway, we can see that society can completely get rid of patents, and  the net will come out as a benefit for the consumers. Therefore, all patents become lies-lies to fool the Government, in the name of advancing innovation, protecting scientists, etc, etc. at the expense of the consumer. They are in reality devices to establish and increase monopolies (like manufacturers discouraging imported goods to support domestic industry-sounds like a noble cause, but it is the wily spirit of keeping the home market to oneself, always understocked, with no competition from outside products, which is the real reason for manufacturers wanting this. This was explained well by Adam Smith). The Government should try to increase competition between scientists, or at least not decrease it; everywhere they decrease competition, they raise costs for the consumer. As Smith said-a Government should be pro-consumer, and not pro-producer. In this case they are producers of patents. They may have their PhD's or Medicine degrees, but in the end, it all hurts the consumer. If you cannot protect your trade secrets-that is your problem. Don't run to the Government to help you. Unless it is a clear physical theft of stuff-in which case the right entity to go to  is the Police, not the Patent Office and the Courts!

Ben Franklin, the great American Inventor and Statesman, invented the Franklin stove. In 1742, he was offered  a patent for his investment so he can get the sole benefits of his patent, said this "That, as we enjoy great advantages from the inventions of others, we should be glad of an opportunity to serve others by any invention of ours; and this we should do freely and generously." and continued "..."And this is not the only instance of patents taken out for my inventions by others, tho' not always with the same success, which I never contested, as having no desire of profiting by patents myself, and hating disputes. "

What happened to this spirit of sharing knowledge, especially when it is very useful for humanity, e.g. in Medicine? Patents should be awarded to individuals, as honoring them personally, but not to institutions, universities, and companies. They will just sit on their IP blocking progress by others.

Monsanto is another company which oppresses farmers by their bad science patents. The US patent office gives them patents liberally. The US court system can't see this-they side with Monsanto, again with the arguement of Intellectual property protection being necessary for innovation. The judges are not able to see the bad science; and most scientific witnesses in these cases are paid by Monsanto directly or indirectly (sponsorship of  professorships, research, etc.). The farmer is duped into buying a fake science round up or whatever seed; and the US patent office, together with the court system, readily assists Monsanto in establishing this monopoly. More on Monsanto's garbage scientific research here.